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There is quite a bit of science to support the “Oil and Seed Crystal” theory as it is presented here for describing how Herkimer diamonds were formed. Because there is so much information we have divided the information into the following categories:
These references are those that speak directly to the study of Herkimer diamonds, meaning that the researchers examined crystals, minerals, from inside the district, in some manner.
Here are references to the geology of the host rock, either directly, or by connection to nearby geologic sequences. Included is the connection to Riding’s theory on the structural changes of stromatolites as the environment they live in changes.
With all of these references we will provide a very brief synopsis and tie the relevance to the geologic history of Herkimer diamonds. Some of these papers are quite complex and difficult to read, but they all provide some aspect of scientific support to the new “Oil and Seed Crystal Theory” as an explanation of how Herkimer diamonds were made. You can find the old theories here:
We also have a list of references that are used for piecing together the story of how man came to know, name, and use Herkimer diamonds.
There are several studies that focused on the mineralization that filled in fractures in connection with fault structures in central New York. These studies have a direct connection to the Herkimer Mining District - as a description of process.
Since there is strong evidence that hydrocarbons were present, in abundance, within the Herkimer Mining District, we can apply models that scientists use to describe the possible origin of oil and gas in central New York.
There is strong evidence that quartz solutions and hydrocarbon solutions were interacting with each other within the Herkimer Mining District. What little research there is on this dynamic process will be presented here.
Throughout the world there are mineral deposits that have some similarities, and which can be called upon as an “analog”, a geologic system that may share similar processes with the making of Herkimer diamonds.
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Updated - 03/09/2019
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Thank you Shannon Haley Wilbur for the donation of 30 samples from the Fonda region.1/05/2019 and 3/2/2019Check out her Facebook.